By Christopher Harvie
Книга Nineteenth-Century Britain: a truly brief creation Nineteenth-Century Britain: a truly brief advent Книги Иностранные языки Автор: Christopher Harvie, H. C. G. Matthew Год издания: 2005 Формат: pdf Издат.:Oxford collage Press, united states Страниц: 172 Размер: 2,1 Mb ISBN: 0192853988 Язык: Английский0 (голосов: zero) Оценка:The 19th century used to be a time of big progress for Britain. In 1800 it used to be overwhelmingly rural, agrarian, multilingual, and nearly half-Celtic. A century later it was once principally city and English. the consequences of the economic Revolution brought on towns to swell tremendously. London, for instance, grew from approximately 1 million humans to over 6 million. overseas, the British Empire used to be achieving its apex, whereas at domestic the realm got here to surprise on the nice Exhibition of 1851 with its crowning achievement--the Crystal Palace. Historians Christopher Harvie and Colin Matthew current a finished and authoritative consultant to the social, financial, and political occasions that marked the period on which many believed the sunlight might by no means set
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By 1854 the appointment of Medical Ofﬁcers of Health was compulsory, and proved critical in getting the cities not only to undertake major water, drainage, and slum clearance schemes, but to ensure that regulations on building and overcrowding were enforced. 43 ‘Unless the Lord Build the City . ’ But this is only a partial explanation of the reform process. Standards of Education The new industrial society brought into question the organization of education. Opinions on this differed: the Evangelical Hannah More believed that to inculcate religion but preserve order, children should learn to read but not write.
C. Tait, a future archbishop of Canterbury, for example, lost ﬁve of his seven children to scarlet fever in Carlisle in 1856. In 1831 the government forced local notables to serve on temporary boards of health, in order to combat cholera. In 1840 Edwin Chadwick, concerned at the numbers driven into pauperism by the death of the breadwinner and ill-health, conducted on behalf of the Poor Law Commissioners an Inquiry into the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population, published in 1842. As a result of this, and subsequent agitation, not to speak of the threat of another cholera outbreak, an act of 1848 gave municipalities powers to set up local boards of health, subject to three public health commissioners, among them Chadwick himself.
British industry was still dominated by textiles, and the market for them was both ﬁnite and subject to increasing competition from America and Europe. The industry was overcapitalized, and the adoption of each new invention meant that the return on capital decreased; each commercial depression was steeper and longer lasting than the last. Real wages increased only slowly, probably not sufﬁciently to counter the precipitate decline of the handwork trades and the high marginal costs of urban life.
Nineteenth-Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction by Christopher Harvie